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Incorporation

Setting up a company in Canada

When setting up a company you may want to consider these factors:

  1. Business Factors

    • The industry and type of business
    • Nationality of the headquarters/individual(s) and
    • Presence of existing trade agreements or relationships
  2. Location

    Location will be another factor since separate cities, regions and the different states may have different rules, costs and availability. It is always recommended to seek advice from relevant professionals, such as business or legal advisors, accountants and others depending on your needs.

  3. Regional Language

    Regional language may be an influence. Although English is the national language, different locations in Canada use different languages, such as French, meaning some terminology may be different in various regions. French Canadians constitute the main French-speaking population of Canada, accounting for about 22% of the total population of that country.

    Side Note: For corporations, as per the Canada Business Corporations Act (Canada Business Corporations Act s118(3); “At least 25% of the directors must be resident Canadians (if 25% of the directors is not a whole number round up to the nearest whole number). Where a corporation has less than four directors, at least one must be a resident Canadian”.

Your Options

Foreign companies generally establish a business presence in Canada in one of three modes:
1. Corporations
2. Partnerships (general or limited)
3. Extra Provincial Corporations

Establishing a Corporation requires 25% local ownership, while Partnership is 50% and an EPC requires at least a local resident agent or representative in the Province that the company registers in.

The first step no matter which mode a company decides to enter Canada is to do a name search so there is no conflict with a local named company.

Corporations Canada is the body responsible for administering companies via the Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA), which has offices in Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, and Toronto. You can incorporate a business online, or get the forms and file them by fax or mail.

Corporation

Incorporation of a Canadian corporation can be done either at the federal or provincial/territorial level. When you incorporate your business, it is considered a legal entity that is separate from the shareholders. As a shareholder of a corporation, you will not be personally liable for the debts, obligations or acts of the corporation. It is always wise to seek legal advice before incorporating. This article bases its information on the federal process, while the provincial incorporation process is discussed later in this guide.

orporation Advantages:

  • Limited liability
  • Ownership is transferable
  • Continuous existence
  • Separate legal entity
  • Easier to raise capital
  • Possible tax advantage as taxes may be lower for an incorporated business

Corporation Disadvantages:

  • A corporation is closely regulated
  • More expensive to incorporate than a partnership or sole proprietorship
  • Extensive corporate records required, including shareholder and director meetings, and documentation filed annually with the government
  • Possible conflict between shareholders and directors
  • Possible problem with residency of directors

Obtain Right to Use Corporate Name

As stated above, when incorporating, you must first conduct a name search and obtain the right to use the name, as detailed earlier in this article. This search can be done directly via NUANS or through a Search House, and confirms no one else has a business or registered trademark with the same name or similar to the name you’ve chosen for your corporation. You must provide a current NUANS (New Upgraded Automated Name Search) report with your application for incorporation.

Just as with a corporation or partnerships, there are restrictions on the names you may use. The name cannot include restricted words, such as “bank”, “trust”, “insurance”, “stock exchange”, “university”, “academy”, etc. or words that imply the business is connected with the Government of Canada.

Time: 5 days – 1 week

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes, but higher if using a Search House.

File Articles of Incorporation with Corporations Canada

All federally incorporated businesses must file certain documents with Corporations Canada. Among these are:

  • Articles of Incorporation;
  • Annual Return;
  • Notices of any changes in board of directors and/or address of registered office
  • Maintain certain corporate records
  • Corporate income tax returns
  • Register in each province or territory where it carries on business.

A business needs to be incorporated if it is to be established as a corporation. An incorporator, also called a promoter, is the individual, corporation or association responsible for the process; the business will not be fully incorporated until the incorporator signs and files the articles of incorporation. Incorporators play a minor role in the overall business, and their involvement typically ceases after the corporation is established.

Who are Incorporators?

Incorporators are typically the actual owners of the business, but may also be employees or members of the law firm handling the incorporation process — also referred to as ‘dummy incorporators’. If using a law firm cost will be incurred to perform this duty, cost will vary depending on the law firm.

Side note: Location flexibility Incorporation under the CBCA also gives you a degree of flexibility in choosing a location for your business. This flexibility is not always available under the legislation of other Canadian jurisdictions. For example, the CBCA sets no restrictions on the province or territory where registered offices can be located. Nor does it dictate where corporate records are maintained or where annual meetings are held. In fact, the CBCA even permit meetings to be held electronically or outside of Canada.

Time: 5 days

Cost: $200 CAD online filling, $250 CAD if filing by email fax or post (not including lawyer/incorporator fees).

Register Corporate Address (Office)

When federally incorporated, the office address must be provided, and this is automatically registered with Corporations Canada in the previous step. The office can be in any state you wish but likely needs to gain local state licenses and permits to operate within that state1.

Time: No extra time registering the office as it is done when you apply for incorporation. However if the company changes its address later, the company must inform Corporations Canada.

Further time can depend on each state’s licensing and permit requirements.

Cost:  None.

Side note: Naturally other time and costs related to establishing a physically office would include signing a lease, which will vary depending on the real estate agent, and require aside 1 to 4 weeks as a minimum for searching and paperwork to be approved. Signing a lease will likely include fees such as a deposit, rent payments in advance, insurance and possibly guarantor fees.

Open Company Bank Account

Generally it is relatively straightforward to open a bank account at most banks, and there are several international banks in major Canadian cities such as Citibank but also local banks such as the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC).

A copy of the branch office registration documents and seal will be required to open a bank account.

Time: 1 day

Cost: None

Register Business Number, Tax and Payroll

All these requirements can be obtained from one source, called Business Registration Online (BRO). It is a “one stop self-serve application” that allows you to register for a Business Number online, as well as registering for corporation income tax, GST/HST tax, and payroll. An application can also be sent via email or fax.

Time: All done in one application, which is processed immediately upon completions of application (or within 10 days if done via email or fax).

Cost:   No registration costs

Obtain Right of Use of Corporate Name

For all types of businesses, including partnerships, you must get Corporations Canada to assign to you the exclusive use of the desired corporate name in Canada. There are two things to submit:

  • New Upgraded Automated Name Search (NUANS) report, and;
  • Corporate Name Information Form

The Corporate Name Information Form contains background information about the proposed name and reasons behind choosing it. While it is optional, it can prevent problems in the process, and thus is strongly recommended.

NUANS Name Search Report

This is a document that includes a list of business names and trademarks that sound similar to the name an incorporator is proposing. The list is drawn from NUANS, the national data bank of existing and reserved business names as well as trademarks registered and applied for in Canada. Note that a NUANS Name Search Report is valid for 90 days from the date of the report. If you do not apply to incorporate within this period, you will have to obtain a new report.

There are two ways to get a NUANS Name Search Report:

Directly Order a NUANS Name Search Report Online

Located at https://www.nuans.com, this system provides direct access to the NUANS name search service. However, as this is a self-service, it does not provide any professional assistance or recommendations available from a registered NUANS “search house”. The name in your NUANS Name Search Report may be rejected if it does not comply with CBCA name regulations. Thus if you go this route, be sure that you understand the requirements you must meet before Corporations Canada will approve a name.

Ask For a Report From a Search House

A search house is an independent, private-sector business that charges a fee for advice on the availability of your corporate name choice.

You can find a list of these firms on the NUANS website or in the Canadian Yellow Pages directory under “Searchers of Records.”

Corporate Name Information Form

Although this is optional the approval of a corporate name may be facilitated if you provide information about your reasons for choosing the name.

A form is available at the NUANS website.

However, instead of this form you may also simply submit a letter describing the corporation’s activities, products and services, target clientele, where you expect the corporation to operate, and the origin of the distinctive element(s) of the corporate name.

Side Note: If you intend to do business in the Province of Quebec, please note that the Province of Quebec does not currently provide corporate name data to NUANS. It is your responsibility to verify with the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec that the chosen corporate name is not used in Quebec by another business. You do not have to provide a report from the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec with your Articles of Incorporation.

Time: Allow 1 week for searches of all states

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes (higher if using a Search House).

Partnerships

Canada allows for two forms of partnership: a general partnership or a limited partnership. In certain circumstances, these can also later be ‘incorporated’ into a limited liability partnership.

General Partnerships

A general partnership is a good business structure if you want to carry on a business with a partner and you do not wish to incorporate a formal company.

With a partnership, financial resources are combined and put into the business. You can establish the terms of your business with your partner and protect yourself in case of a disagreement or dissolution by drawing up a specific business agreement. As partners, you would share in the profits of your business according to the terms of your agreement.

When establishing either kind of partnership, you should have a partnership agreement drawn up with the assistance of a lawyer, to ensure that:

  • You are protecting your interests
  • That you have clearly established the terms of the partnership with regards to issues like profit sharing, dissolving the partnership, and more
  • That you meet the legal requirements for a limited partnership (if applicable)

General Partnership Advantages:

  • Easy to start-up a partnership
  • Start-up costs would be shared equally with you and your partner
  • Equal share in the management, profits and assets
  • Tax advantage, if income from the partnership is low or loses money (you and your partner include your share of the partnership in your individual tax return)

General Partnership Disadvantages:

  • Similar to sole proprietorship, as there is no legal difference between you and your business
  • Unlimited liability (if you have business debts, personal assets would be used to pay off the debt)
  • Hard to find a suitable partner
  • Possible development of conflict between you and your partner
  • You are held financially responsible for business decisions made by your partner (for example, contracts that are broken)

Limited Partnerships

Limited Partnerships are another form of business registration in Canada, which creates a Canadian company, but does not generate filing and tax obligations in Canada for partners who are not residents of Canada.

This form of business registration is thus better for foreign businesses or individuals who wish to establish a business presence in Canada. It is extremely popular among software developers, web programmers, computer support specialists and IT service providers, who offer services to customers in Canada, US and Europe.

Other common uses of a Limited Partnership in Canada include: a regular trading company for doing business in Canada, US, EU and other highly regulated jurisdictions, an agent working under Sales Agency Agreement.

The principal may be any legal entity including companies registered in low and zero tax jurisdictions. Software development and IT support services, when major customers are located in Canada, US and EU. Online based businesses (website development, marketing services, auctions, webstores, etc.).

Unlike a general partnership, each partner is responsible only for his or her own liabilities. It makes partners more fully accountable to their clients or customers and ensures that all partners can engage in their business without the concern of having their personal assets at risk (unless there is negligence or wrongdoing).

Limited Partnership Advantages:

  • No restrictions on the residency of partners
  • Availability of one-man limited partnership, when one person is a sole general and limited partner
  • There is no minimum capital requirement.
  • No withholding tax on profit received by partners outside of Canada
  • No requirements to file corporate tax returns
  • No corporate income tax.
  • Each partner is only responsible for own liabilities

Limited Liability Partnerships

Finally, a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is a more formal structure that certain types of partnership may be eligible for. Eligible General or Limited Partnerships can be later registered as Limited Liability Partnerships and at such point the partnership ceases to be a registered general partnership or limited partnership (Partnership Act s103.).

In Canada, a limited liability partnership is usually only available to groups of professionals, such as lawyers, accountants and doctors. These partnership agreements and their formation requirements and eligibility requirements are governed by specific provincial legislation. For instance, currently in Ontario, only lawyers, chartered accountants and certified general accountants may form a Limited Liability Partnership.

Like the normal partnerships, the name must include an appropriate legal element, such as “Limited Liability Partnership” or “LLP” (Partnership Act s100) or the French equivalent, in its name. The name cannot include a last name or a distinctive corporate name unless it is the last name or corporate name of one of the general partners. The name of a Limited Partnership may be in English-form, French-form or both.

Limited Liability Partnerships also need to maintain an office where a current and alphabetical list of its partners is kept and make that information available for inspection and copying during normal business hours (Partnership Act part 6).

Limited liability partnerships are required to file with the registrar an annual report each year within two months of the anniversary date of its registration. Further, any change to the information provided in the registration statement will need to be filed with the registrar.

Registration Steps for All Partnerships

Obtain Right to Use Corporate Name

Like a corporation, you must first conduct a name search and obtain the right to use the name, as detailed earlier in this article. This search can be done directly via NUANS or through a Search House, and confirms no one else has a business or registered trade mark with the same name or similar to the name you’ve chosen for your corporation. You must provide a current NUANS (New Upgraded Automated Name Search) report with your application for incorporation.

Just as with a corporation there are restrictions on the names you may use. The name cannot include restricted words, such as “bank”, “trust”, “insurance”, “stock exchange”, “university”, “academy”, etc. or words that imply the business is connected with the Government of Canada.

Time: 5 days – 1 week

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes,higher if using a Search House

Register name of Partnership with Corporations Canada

Each Limited Partnership is required to have a legal name registered with Corporations Canada.

The name must include a legal element, such as “Limited Partnership” or “LP” (Partnership Act s100) or the French equivalent. The name cannot include a last name or a distinctive corporate name unless it is the last name or corporate name of one of the general partners. The name of a Limited Partnership may be in English-form, French-form or both.

Time: 1-3 days

Costs: CAD $275 plus CAD $21.47 name reservation fee.

CAD $35 annual report filing fee

Obtain Right of Use of Corporate Name

For all types of businesses, including partnerships, you must get Corporations Canada to assign to you the exclusive use of the desired corporate name in Canada. There are two things to submit:

  • New Upgraded Automated Name Search (NUANS) report, and;
  • Corporate Name Information Form

The Corporate Name Information Form contains background information about the proposed name and reasons behind choosing it. While it is optional, it can prevent problems in the process, and thus is strongly recommended.

NUANS Name Search Report

This is a document that includes a list of business names and trademarks that sound similar to the name an incorporator is proposing. The list is drawn from NUANS, the national data bank of existing and reserved business names as well as trademarks registered and applied for in Canada. Note that a NUANS Name Search Report is valid for 90 days from the date of the report. If you do not apply to incorporate within this period, you will have to obtain a new report.

There are two ways to get a NUANS Name Search Report:

Directly Order a NUANS Name Search Report Online

Located at https://www.nuans.com, this system provides direct access to the NUANS name search service. However, as this is a self-service, it does not provide any professional assistance or recommendations available from a registered NUANS “search house”. The name in your NUANS Name Search Report may be rejected if it does not comply with CBCA name regulations. Thus if you go this route, be sure that you understand the requirements you must meet before Corporations Canada will approve a name.

Ask For a Report From a Search House

A search house is an independent, private-sector business that charges a fee for advice on the availability of your corporate name choice.

You can find a list of these firms on the NUANS website or in the Canadian Yellow Pages directory under “Searchers of Records.”

Corporate Name Information Form

Although this is optional the approval of a corporate name may be facilitated if you provide information about your reasons for choosing the name.

A form is available at the NUANS website.

However, instead of this form you may also simply submit a letter describing the corporation’s activities, products and services, target clientele, where you expect the corporation to operate, and the origin of the distinctive element(s) of the corporate name.

Side Note: If you intend to do business in the Province of Quebec, please note that the Province of Quebec does not currently provide corporate name data to NUANS. It is your responsibility to verify with the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec that the chosen corporate name is not used in Quebec by another business. You do not have to provide a report from the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec with your Articles of Incorporation.

Time: Allow 1 week for searches of all states

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes (higher if using a Search House).

Extra-Provincial Corporation (EPC)

In Canada you can incorporate at a provincial level, such as British Columbia, Ontario etc each province has its own specific requirements to set up a business. One of the particular benefits of an EPC is that it does not have a minimum requirement of Canadian residents, therefore it can be wholly foreign owned and directed. However, an EPC must generally have permanent resident Agent for Service (e.g. in Ontario).

The following information is based on the requirements for an EPC in Ontario. Each province will have a similar approach but may have different specific requirements. This guide will use Ontario to show how a Non-Canadian company can use the Extra Provincial Corporation as a branch to enter Canada.

Advantages Of An EPC

  • Offshore and onshore companies from any jurisdiction may be registered in Ontario and get status of Ontario EPC
  • Status of Ontario EPC enhances image of non-Canadian companies
  • No restrictions on the residency of directors, officers and shareholders of Ontario EPC
  • Ontario EPC is able to open a bank account and office and conduct its business in Ontario
  • No tax obligations in Canada, when Ontario EPC conducts business outside of Canada
  • No filing of the tax return is required, when Ontario EPC conducts business outside of Canada
  • All Ontario business expenses (advertisement, salaries, office lease, etc.) are deductible from the taxable income received in Ontario
  • No annual meeting is required in Ontario.

Obtain Right to Use Corporate Name

Like a corporation, you must first conduct a name search and obtain the right to use the name, as detailed earlier in this article. This search can be done directly via NUANS or through a Search House, and confirms no one else has a business or registered trademark with the same name or similar to the name you’ve chosen for your corporation. You must provide a current NUANS (New Upgraded Automated Name Search) report with your application for incorporation.

Just as with a corporation or partnerships, there are restrictions on the names you may use, such as words that imply the business is connected with the Government of Canada.

Time: 5 days – 1 week

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes, but higher if using a Search House.

File Articles of Incorporation with ServiceOntario

An EPC’s incorporation can be filed with the local company registrar office. For example, in Ontario, it can be registered with a body called ServiceOntario.

To register an Extra Provincial Corporation in the Ontario, you will need to provide:

  • Name and address of the business.
  • Fresh NUANS report – less than 90 days old
  • Description of the business activity.
  • Name and address of each Director.
  • Name and address of each Shareholder

You need a minimum of 1 Director and Shareholder (though one person can hold both positions).

Register Corporate Address (Office)

Depending on the province, corporations generally require a registered address.

Many Corporations often use a separate corporate registered address to keep important government correspondence separate from other corporate correspondence. This is even more important if you have a home-based business, because this allows you to maintain an increased level of privacy. This address is provided in the application for incorporation as it is public record many companies use different address to their normal business address, this done for many reason an example of this is home business who does not wish their home address to be on public register.

Time: 2 to 3 weeks.

Cost: CAD $249.00 for one year, plus applicable taxes and an account activation fee of $35.

Side Note: time and price based on Ontario as an sample case, other provinces’ fees and time may have different figures and requirements.

Open a company bank account

Generally it is relatively straightforward to open a bank account at most banks, and there are several international banks in major Canadian cities such as Citibank but also local banks such as the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC).

A copy of the branch office registration documents and seal will be required to open a bank account.

Time: 1 day

Cost: None

Register Business Number, Tax and Payroll

All these requirements can be obtained from one source, called Business Registration Online (BRO). It is a “one stop self-serve application” that allows you to register for a Business Number online, as well as registering for corporation income tax, GST/HST tax, and payroll. An application can also be sent via email or fax.

Time: All done in one application, which is processed immediately upon completions of application (or within 10 days if done via email or fax).

Cost: No registration costs.

Obtain Right of Use of Corporate Name

For all types of businesses, including partnerships, you must get Corporations Canada to assign to you the exclusive use of the desired corporate name in Canada. There are two things to submit:

  • New Upgraded Automated Name Search (NUANS) report, and;
  • Corporate Name Information Form

The Corporate Name Information Form contains background information about the proposed name and reasons behind choosing it. While it is optional, it can prevent problems in the process, and thus is strongly recommended.

NUANS Name Search Report

This is a document that includes a list of business names and trademarks that sound similar to the name an incorporator is proposing. The list is drawn from NUANS, the national data bank of existing and reserved business names as well as trademarks registered and applied for in Canada. Note that a NUANS Name Search Report is valid for 90 days from the date of the report. If you do not apply to incorporate within this period, you will have to obtain a new report.

There are two ways to get a NUANS Name Search Report:

Directly Order a NUANS Name Search Report Online

Located at https://www.nuans.com, this system provides direct access to the NUANS name search service. However, as this is a self-service, it does not provide any professional assistance or recommendations available from a registered NUANS “search house”. The name in your NUANS Name Search Report may be rejected if it does not comply with CBCA name regulations. Thus if you go this route, be sure that you understand the requirements you must meet before Corporations Canada will approve a name.

Ask For a Report From a Search House

A search house is an independent, private-sector business that charges a fee for advice on the availability of your corporate name choice.

You can find a list of these firms on the NUANS website or in the Canadian Yellow Pages directory under “Searchers of Records.”

Corporate Name Information Form

Although this is optional the approval of a corporate name may be facilitated if you provide information about your reasons for choosing the name.

A form is available at the NUANS website.

However, instead of this form you may also simply submit a letter describing the corporation’s activities, products and services, target clientele, where you expect the corporation to operate, and the origin of the distinctive element(s) of the corporate name.

Side Note: If you intend to do business in the Province of Quebec, please note that the Province of Quebec does not currently provide corporate name data to NUANS. It is your responsibility to verify with the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec that the chosen corporate name is not used in Quebec by another business. You do not have to provide a report from the Registraire des entreprises, Quebec with your Articles of Incorporation.

Time: Allow 1 week for searches of all states

Cost: CAD $21.47 plus applicable taxes (higher if using a Search House).

Outsourcing Employment Through a GEO Employer of Record Service

Whether to incorporate in Canada, and what sort of entity to setup are just two of the many choices companies must make when expanding into a new market.

If the company intends to have staff in Canada they must also decide whether they will administer that employment internally or use a Global Employment Organization to handle payroll and Employer of Record responsibilities. A GEO Employer of Record solution is an attractive alternative where

  • the company is looking to setup an office quickly
  • the company wants to work within a defined budget
  • the company wants to limit its initial commitment in Canada
  • the company needs help with tax, employment, immigration and payroll compliance in Canada

The complexity of employment regulations in Canada makes the use of a GEO advisable coupled with local legal counsel to ensure full compliance with employment laws, for example the drafting of local contracts for workers.

Shield GEO provides a comprehensive service in Canada allowing companies to deploy their staff quickly with reasonable, clearly stated costs and timeframes. The company contracts directly with Shield to employ and payroll their staff on their behalf in Canada.

Shield GEO then becomes the Employer of Record. Shield GEO assumes the legal responsibility for these employees, sponsoring them on work permits, complying with local employment law and running their monthly payroll. Using Shield GEO is the fastest and most cost effective way to deploy local and foreign workers into Canada. Read more about outsourced employment through Shield GEO.

Summary of Setup Steps

Co = Corporation

EPC = Extra Provincial Corporation

PT = Partnership/Limited Partnership

  Co PT EPC Time Cost (CAD)
Can non-residents be company members? Yes Yes Yes    
Percentage of members who are required to be residents: 25% 50% 0%in each province must have a rep or agent who is from that state    
Conduct business across all of Canada? Yes Yes only in province registered  
Obtain Right / Register Business Name Yes Yes Yes

1 week(Co/EPC)

 

 

1-3 days (partnership)

21.47 (Co/EPC)*higher if using a Search House

You can find a list of Search Houses on the NUANS website

 

File Articles of Incorporation Yes Yes 5 days 200-250(Fee’s different in each Province for EPC)
Register an Office Yes Yes (in province office is registered)   part of the registration of business application no extra cost
Open a corporate bank account Yes Yes Yes 1 day 0
Obtain Business Number Yes Yes instant* 0
Register with social security office (payroll office) Yes Optional Yes instant* 0
Notify tax office Yes Optional Yes(non resident can take profit out of country) instant* 0
 TOTALS*applications and processing times, not including internal document preparation, etc

COTime 2 weeks

 

Cost: 221.47

PTTime: 4 weeks

 

Cost: 296.47+ 35 annual reporting

EPC Time: 2 weeks

 

Cost: 270.47+ 35 annual reporting Fee

   

 

* Note: Obtain Business Number, register with Social Security/Payroll Office and notifying the tax office are all done in a combined step under the Business Registration Online system.

Conclusion

Canada has three main ways to allow non-Canadian companies do this: company, partnership or extra-provincial corporation.

It would be wise for a foreign-owned company to understand that there is some protection for local companies through the need to engage locals within these structures. Establishing a Corporation requires 25% local ownership, while partnership is 50% and an EPC requires at least a local resident agent or representative in the Province that the company registers in. There are many companies within Canada that could provide this agency/representative service for a fee.

All documents towards setting up a company appear straightforward and there is a “one-stop shop” to register for a business number, welfare and the GST/HST federal tax system.

For all business structures the time to register may be delayed by actioning personal tasks such as preparing and collating the necessary documents required, so adding extra weeks when planning your company is always good practice.

There are many companies within Canada who have strategically placed themselves to help non-Canadians to set up businesses, providing the easiest way to enter the Canadian market and gain a foothold in the country. Naturally these services will incur not-insubstantial fees

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